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The Hadith Book  from
54 hadith found in 'Jihad' of Malik's Muwatta.
 21.9.17 

 Yahya related to me from Malik that it reached him that a slave of Abdullah ibn Umar escaped and one of his horses wandered off, and the idol worshippers seized them. Then the Muslims recaptured them, and they were returned to Abdullah ibn Umar, before the division of the spoils took place. I heard Malik say about muslim property that had been seized by the enemy, "If it is noticed before the distribution, then it is returned to itsowner. Whatever has already been distributed is not returned to anyone." Malik, when asked about a man whose young male slave was taken by the idol worshippers and then the Muslims re-captured him, said, "The owner is more entitled to him without having to pay his price or value or having to incur any loss before the distribution takes place. If the distribution has already taken place then I think that the slave belongs to his master for his price if the master wants him back." Regarding an umm walad of a Muslim man who has been taken by the idol worshippers and then recaptured by the Muslims and allotted in the distribution of spoils and then recognised by her master after the distribution, Malik said, "She is not to be enslaved. I think that the Imam should pay a ransom for her for her master. If he does not do it, then her master must pay a ransom for her and not leave her. I do not think that she should be made a slave by whoever takes her and intercourse with her is not halal. She is in the position of a free woman because her master would be required to pay compensation if she injured somebody and so she is in the same position (as a wife). He must not leave the mother of his son to be enslaved nor may intercourse with her be made halal." Malik was asked about a man who went to enemy territory to pay ransom or to trade, and he bought a free man or a slave, or they were given to him. He said, "As for the free man, the price he buys him for is a debt against the man and he is not made a slave. If the captive is given to him freely, he is free and owes nothing unless the man gave something in recompense for him. That is a debt against the free man, the same as if a ransom had been paid for him. As for a slave, his former master can choose to take him back and pay his price to the man who bought him or he can choose to leave him, as he wishes. If he was given to the man, the former master is more entitled to him, and he owes nothing for him unless the man gave something for him in recompense. Whatever he gave for him is a loss against the master if he wants him back."  

 21.10.18 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Amr ibn Kathir ibn Aflah from Abu Muhammad, the mawla of Abu Qatada that Abu Qatada ibn Ribi said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the year of Hunayn. When the armies met, the Muslims were put in disarray. I saw a man from the idol worshippers who had got the better of one of the Muslims, so I circled round and came up behind him, and struck him with a sword on his shoulder-blade. He turned to me and grabbed me so hard that I felt the smell of death in it. Then death overcame him, and he let go of me." He continued, "I met Umar ibn al-Khattab and said to him, 'What's going on with the people?' He replied, 'The Command of Allah.' Then the people took hold of the battle and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever has killed one of the dead and can prove it, can strip him of his personal effects.' I stood up and said, 'Who will testify for me?' and then I sat down. The Messenger of Allah repeated, 'Whoever has killed one of the dead and can prove it, can strip him of his personal effects.' I stood up and said, 'Who will testify for me?' then I sat down. Then he repeated his statement a third time, so I stood up, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'What's the matter with you, Abu Qatada?' So I related my story to him. A man said, 'He has spoken the truth, Messenger of Allah. I have the effects of that slain person with me, so give him compensation for it, Messenger of Allah.' Abu Bakr said, 'No, by Allah! He did not intend that one of the lions of Allah should fight for Allah and His Messenger and then give you his spoils.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'He has spoken the truth, hand it over to him.' He gave it to me, and I sold the breast-plate and I bought a garden in the area of the Banu Salima with the money. It was my first property, and I acquired it in Islam."  

 21.10.19 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said that he had heard a man asking ibn Abbas about booty. Ibn Abbas said, "Horses are part of the booty and personal effects are as well." Then the man repeated his question, and Ibn Abbas repeated his answer. Then the man said, "What are the spoils which He, the Blessed, the Exalted, mentioned in His Book?" He kept on asking until Ibn Abbas was on the verge of being annoyed, then Ibn Abbas said, "Do you know who this man is like? Ibn Sabigh, who was beaten by Umar ibn al-Khattab because he was notorious for asking foolish questions." Yahya said that Malik was asked whether someone who killed one of the enemy could keep the man's effects without the permission of the Imam. He said, "No one can do that without the permission of the Imam. Only the Imam can make ijtihad. I have not heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ever said, 'Whoever kills someone can have his effects,' on any other day than the day of Hunayn." 3  

 21.11.20 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad that Said ibn al-Musayyab said, "People used to be given bonuses from the Khumus." Malik said, "That is the best of what I have heard on the matter." Malik was asked about bonuses and whether they were taken from the first of the spoils, and he said, "That is only decided according to the ijtihad of the Imam. We do not have a known reliable command about that other than it is up to the ijtihad of the Sultan. I have not heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave bonuses in all his raids. I have only heard that he gave bonuses in one of them, namely the day of Hunayn. It depends on the ijtihad of the Imam whether they are taken from the first of the spoils or what is after it."  

 21.12.21 

 Yahya related to me that Malik said that he had heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz used to say, "The man on horse-back has two shares, and the man on foot has one." Malik added, "I continue to hear the same." Malik, when asked whether a man who was present with several horses took a share for all of them, said, "I have never heard that. I think that there is only a share for the horse on which he fought." Malik said, "I think that foreign horses and half-breeds are considered as horses because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'All horses, and mules, and asses, for you to ride, and as an adornment.' (Sura16 ayat 8). He said, the Mighty, the Majestic, 'Make ready for them whatever force and strings of horses you can, to terrify thereby the enemy of Allah and your enemy.' (Sura 8 ayat 60). I think that foreign breeds and half-breeds are considered as horses if the governor accepts them." Said ibn al-Musayyab was asked about working horses, and whether there was zakat on them. He said, "Is there any zakat on horses.?"  

 21.13.22 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Said from Amr ibn Shuayb that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came back from Hunayn heading for al-Jiirrana, the people crowded around so much to question him that his she-camel backed into a tree, which became entangled in his cloak and pulled it off his back. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Return my cloak to me. Are you afraid that I will not distribute among you what Allah has given you as spoils. By He in whose hand my self is! Had Allah given you spoils equal to the number of acacia trees on the plain of Tihama, I would have distributed it among you. You will not find me to be miserly, cowardly, or a liar." Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got down and stood among the people, and said, "Hand over even the needle and thread, for stealing from the spoils is disgrace, fire, ignominy on the Day of Rising for people who do it." Then he took a bit of camel fluff or something from the ground and said, "By He in whose hand my self is! What Allah has made spoils for you is not mine - even the like of this! - except for the tax of one fifth, and the tax of one fifth is returned to you."  

 21.13.23 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Habban from Ibn Abi Amra that Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani said, "A man died on the day of Hunayn, and they mentioned him to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." Zayd claimed that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "You pray over your companion." (i.e. he would not pray himself). The people's faces dropped at that. Zayd claimed that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Your companion stole from the spoils taken in the way of Allah." Zayd said, "So we opened up his baggage and found some Jews' beads worth about two dirhams."  

 21.13.24 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Abdullah ibn al-Mughira ibn Abi Burda al-Kinani that he had heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to the people in their tribes and made dua for them, but left out one of the tribes. Abdullah related, "The tribe found an onyx necklace in the saddle-bags of one of their men. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to them, and then did the takbir over them as one does the takbir over the dead."  

 21.13.25 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Thawr ibn Zayd ad-Dili from Abu'l-Ghayth Salim, the mawla of ibn Muti that Abu Hurayra said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the yearof Khaybar. We did not capture any gold or silver except for personal effects, clothes, and baggage. Rifaa ibn Zayd presented a black slave boy to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, whose name was Midam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made for Wadi'l-Qura, and when he arrived there, Midam was unsaddling the camel of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a stray arrow struck and killed him. The people said, 'Good luck to him! The Garden!' The Messenger of Allah said, 'No! By He in whose hand my self is! The cloak which he took from the spoils on the Day of Khaybar before they were distributed will blaze with fire on him.' When the people heard that, a man brought a sandal-strap or two sandal-straps to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A sandal-strap or two sandal-straps of fire!' "  

 21.13.26 

 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Abbas said, "Stealing from the spoils does not appear in a people but that terror is cast into their hearts. Fornication does not spread in a people but that there is much death among them. A people do not lessen the measure and weight but that provision is cut off from them. A people do not judge without right but that blood spreads among them. A people do not betray the pledge but that Allah gives their enemies power over them."  

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