102 hadith found in 'Business Transactions' of Malik's Muwatta.
| 31.42.91 || Malik related to me from Humayd ibn Qays al-Makki that Mujahid said, "Abdullah ibn Umar borrowed some dirhams from a man, then he discharged his debt with dirhams better than them. The man said, 'Abu Abdar-Rahman. These are better than the dirhams which I lent you.' Abdullah ibn Umar said, 'I know that. But I am happy with myself about that.' " Malik said, "There is no harm in a person who has borrowed gold, silver, food, or animals, taking to the person who lent it, something better than what he lent, when that is not a stipulation between them nor a custom. If that is by a stipulation or promise or custom, then it is disapproved, and there is no good in it." He said, "That is because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, discharged his debt with a good camel in its seventh year in place of a young camel which he borrowed, and Abdullah ibn Umar borrowed some dirhams, and repaid them with better ones. If that is from the goodness of the borrower, and it is not by a stipulation, promise, or custom, it is halal and there is no harm in it."
|| 31.43.92 || Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibn al-Khattab said that he disapproved of one man lending another food on the provision that he gave it back to him in another city. He said, "Where is the transport?"
|| 31.43.93 || And Malik related to me that he had heard that a man came to Abdullah ibn Umar and said, "Abu Abd ar-Rahman, I gave a man a loan and stipulated that he give me better than what I lent him." Abdullah ibn Umar said, "That is usury." Abdullah said, "Loans are of three types: A free loan which you lend by which you desire the pleasure of Allah, and so you have the pleasure of Allah. A free loan which you lend by which you desire the pleasure of your companion, so you have the pleasure of your companion, and a free loan which you lend by which you take what is impure by what is pure, and that is usury." He said, "What do you order me to do, Abu Abd ar-Rahman?" He said, "I think that you should tear up the agreement. If he gives you the like of what you lent him, accept it. If he gives you less than what you lent him, take it and you will be rewarded. If he gives you better than what you lent him, of his own good will, that is his gratitude to you and you have the wage of the period you gave him the loan."
|| 31.43.94 || Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that he heard Abdullah ibn Umar say, "If someone lends something, let the only condition be that it is repaid."
|| 31.43.95 || Malik related to me that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Masud used to say, "If someone makes a loan, they should not stipulate better than it. Even if it is a handful of grass, it is usury." Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us is that there is no harm in borrowing any animals with a set description and itemisation, and one must return the like of them. This is not done in the case of female slaves. It is feared about that that it will lead to making halal what is not halal, so it is not good. The explanation of what is disapproved of in that, is that a man borrow a slave-girl and have intercourse with her as seems proper to him. Then he returns her to her owner. That is not good and it is not halal. The people of knowledge still forbid it and do not give an indulgence to any one in it."
|| 31.44.96 || Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not let any of you bid against each other."
|| 31.44.97 || Malik related to me from Abu'z-Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do not go out to meet the caravans for trade, do not bid against each other, outbidding in order to raise the price, and a townsman must not buy on behalf of a man of the desert, and do not tie up the udders of camels and sheep so that they appear to have a lot of milk, for a person who buys them after that has two recourses open to him after he milks them. If he is pleased with them, he keeps them and if he is displeased with them, he can return them along with a sa of dates." Malik said, "The explanation of the words of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, according to what we think - and Allah knows best - 'do not bid against each other,' is that it is forbidden for a man to offer a price over the price of his brother when the seller has inclined to the bargainer and made conditions about the weight of the gold and he has declared himself not liable for faults and such things by which it is recognised that the seller wants to make a transaction with the bargainer. This is what he forbade, and Allah knows best." Malik said, "There is no harm, however, in more than one person bidding against each other over goods put up for sale." He said, "Were people to leave off haggling when the first person started haggling, an unreal price might be taken and the disapproved would enter into the sale of the goods. This is still the way of doing things among us."
|| 31.44.98 || Malik said, from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade najsh. Malik said, "Najsh is to offer a man more than the worth of his goods when you do not mean to buy them and someone else follows you in bidding."
|| 31.45.99 || Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar from Abdullah ibn Umar that a man mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that he was always being cheated in business transactions. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you enter a transaction, say, 'No trickery.' So whenever that man entered a transaction, he would say, 'No trickery.' "
|| 31.45.100 || Malik related to me that Yahya ibn Said heard Said ibn al-Musayyab say, "When you come to a land where they give full measure and full weight, stay there. When you come to a land where they shorten the measure and weight, then do not stay there very long."
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