Prophet (SAW)'s Prayers

Upon hearing the Muazzin give Athan
Reply to the Muazzin
It is stated in the Ahadith that whosoever answers the muazzin there is Jannah for him.

(Hisnul Hasin)
Thus the reply to the muazzin (when the Muazzin says:)
حَيِّ عَلَى الصَّلَاةِ حَيِّ عَلَى الْفَلَاحِ
لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ
At the end of the athaan recite Durood then
اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ هَذِهِ الدَّعْوَةِ التَّامَّةِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْقَائِمَةِ آتِ مُحَمَّدَاً الْوَسِيلَةَ وَالْفَضِيلَةَ وَابْعَثْهُ مَقَامَاً مَحْمُودَاً الَّذِي وَعَدْتَهُ إِنَّكَ لَا تُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ
"O Allah, the Lord of this total call (invitation, proclamation) and the Lord of the Salat to begin, grant Muhammad 'intercession' ( a status) and grant him superiority and let him reach Mooqame Mahmood which You have promised, for definitely You do not go back on Your promises".

By reciting this dua, the intercession of Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) becomes wajib.

Note: The reply to the Iqamat is the same as the reply to the athaan, except that when hearing:
قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلَاةُ
-stand up for Salaat, recite:
أَقَامَهَا اللَّهُ وَأَدَامَهَا
Allah keep (Salaat) perpetual".

Note: In the athaan the famous words
وَالدَّرَجَةُ الرَّفِيعَةُ
are not found in the hadith.
After the fard Salaat recite the following while rubbing the right hand on the forehead:
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ اللَّهُمَّ أَذْهِبْ عَنِّي الْهَمَّ وَالْحَزَنَ
"In the name of Allah, (I have completed the Salaat) who is the only one worthy of worhsip and who is the Most Merciful, the Most Gracious. O Allah remove from me all worries and sorrows".

(Hisnul Hasin)
Then recite Astaghfirullah thrice and recite the following:
اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلَامُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلَامُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ
"O Allah, You are safe, and from You we receive safety. You are Blessed, Lofty and Dignified".
From the following duas either recite all of them or any one indivisually:
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٍ
a. "Besides Allah, there is no one worthy of worship, He is all by Himself and has no partner. His is the Kingdom, to Him is all praise and He has control over everything".

(Bukhari, Muslim)
اللَّهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لَمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَلَا يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَدُّ
b. "O Allah, no one can stop what You give and no one can give what You stop and the wealth of the wealthy cannot prevent Your punishment".

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْجُبْنِ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبُخْلِ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الدُّنْيَا وَعَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ
c. "O Allah, I seek refuge from cowardice, miserliness and childness in old age, from the trials of this world and punishment of the grave".

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَالْفَقْرِ وَعَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ
d. "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from Kufr, poverty and the punishment of the grave".

(Hisnul Hasin)
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَفْتُ وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي أَنْتَ الْمُقَدِّمُ وَأَنْتَ الْمُؤَخِّرُ لَا إِلَهَ إلِاَّ أَنْتَ
e. "O Allah, forgive my past and future sins and those sins which took place knowingly or unknowngly and forgive me for exceeding the limits and those that You know more than me. You are the beginning and the end and besides You there is no one else worthy of worship".

(Abu Dawood)
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِنِّي عَلَى ذِكْرِكَ وَشُكْرِكَ وَحُسْنِ عِبَادَتِكَ
f. "O Allah, help me so that I can make your Dhikr, glorify You and worship You properly".

(Abu Dawood)
g. Note:
It is stated in the hadith that the person who recites Ayatul Qursi after every Salaat, death is the only barrier for him between him and Jannah.

(Behaqi in Sahbatul Iman)
h. Uqba bin Amr (R.A.) states that Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) ordered him to recite the Muwoozhita (i.e. the four Quls) after every fard Salaat.

After every Salaat recite SubhanAllah 33 times, Alhamdulillah 33 times and Allahu Akbar 34 times.
Many virtues are recorded in the Ahadith regarding the recitation of the above.
This is one method. The other method is to recite
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٍ
after completion.
The third method is to recite SubhanAllah 25 Alhamdulillah 25 times and Allahu Akbar 25 times. (All the above are narrated in Mishkat)
Abu Amama (R.A.) narrates from Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) that he Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.) was asked which dua has the greatest acceptance. To this, he replied that the dua recited in the latter part of the night (Tahajjud time) and after the fard Salaat.